This is a keyhole procedure using a very fine telescope to look inside the bladder via the urethra.  It may be done for investigation of conditions such as pelvic pain, urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence or for procedures.  Procedures that Dr Marshall may need to do include taking a small biopsy if there is pathology, passing a ureteric catheter or hydrodilatation of the bladder.  Cystoscopy may also be performed at the end of surgical procedures to check that the ureters are functioning.